Social & Economic Rights
Rights to Public Healthcare in Kazakhstan
Citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan have the right to health care and free amount of medical assistance, as established by law and guaranteed by Article 29 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
In order to ensure respect for the constitutional rights of citizens to health care the country applies the Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On People’s Health and Healthcare System” and the State healthcare development programme of Kazakhstan “Salamatty Kazakhstan” for 2011-2015.
Right to Education in Kazakhtan
The right to education is one of the most essential constitutional social rights, which creates conditions for the individual and common development. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 1995, everyone has the right to education, regardless of sex, nationality, language, origin, place of residence, creed, social status, and has real opportunities to learn and obtain education.
Everyone is guaranteed access to free primary, basic, secondary, technical and vocational education. Furthermore, each citizen of Kazakhstan is guaranteed access, on a competitive basis, to free post-secondary higher and postgraduate education in public educational institutions within the public compulsory standards, provided that he/she receives the degree for the first time.
The constitutional right of citizens to education addresses two tasks. On the one hand, education provides citizens with well-being, position in society, and on the other hand, it provides the country and society with educated human resources, which determines the country’s development rate and is a determining factor for the boost of scientific and technical progress and the reinforcement of economic power, as well as a factor for the stability of society and democracy.
Today Kazakhstan’s education is undergoing a period of modernization. Its main goal is to reliably guarantee the constitutional rights, freedoms and interests of citizens in education and ensure that the education system accords with the needs of the individual, society and state.
Right to Social Security in Kazakhstan
Today, there is a social security system in Kazakhstan. It consists of:
- guaranteed basic social benefits;
- compulsory social insurance;
- voluntary savings to be transformed into social payments.
In the event of disability or survivorship it is established that the basic social benefits are government social disability and survivor benefits, which shall be provided to the respective categories of citizens, regardless of labour experience and wage rate.
In addition to the basic level of social protection, the formal sector workers are subject to compulsory social insurance. In the event of risks of disability and survivorship the State Social Insurance Fund of Kazakhstan shall pay social benefits, the amount of which depends on the rate of wages received by the employee before the social risk, and on the length of participation in the compulsory social insurance system.
In addition, these social risks involve insurance payments made under compulsory insurance against accidents in the execution of labour (official) duties.
Right to Retirement Insurance in Kazakhstan
The pension rights of citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan are guaranteed by Article 28 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The main legislative instrument governing the functioning of the pension system, and aiming to realize the constitutional rights to pension benefits is the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Pension Provision in the Republic of Kazakhstan” (hereinafter – the Law on Pension Provision).
Since 2005, the Republic of Kazakhstan has been implementing a multi-level pension system, which provides for basic pension payments, pension payments from the Centre (hereinafter – unfunded pension) and from pension funds (hereinafter – funded pension).
Basic pension benefits, unfunded pension and pension funds payments are provided in accordance with the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Pension Provision in the Republic of Kazakhstan”. Old age pension benefits are paid in accordance with the Law “On State Social Benefits for Disability, Survivorship and Old Age in the Republic of Kazakhstan”.
Housing Rights In Kazakhstan
The right to housing is a part of the right to an adequate standard of living, guaranteed by the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ratified by Kazakhstan in October 2005).
According to paragraph 2 of Article 25 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Republic of Kazakhstan creates conditions for providing its citizens with housing. Thus, the right to housing is enshrined in the main legislative act of the country.
Housing relations in the Republic of Kazakhstan are regulated by the Law “On Housing Relations” (hereinafter – the Law), the Civil Code and other laws and regulations.
The Law stipulates conditions and procedure for acquiring ownership of the occupied housing from the state housing fund by way of privatization.
It is provided to the categories of people, prescribed by law, being in need of housing for an affordable fee from the state housing funds in accordance with statutory regulations.
In order to provide citizens with housing the country applies the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Housing Relations” and implements “Affordable Housing 2020” state program.